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Books, Chapters, and Articles (Full Citation)

Book with Editor

35 Tom Nesmith, ed., Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993).

Book with Author

35 Theodore R. Schellenberg, Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), 120.

Book with two Authors

35 John Smith and Ted Williams, …

Book with Volumes

35 Author(s), title, 12 vols.,

Book with Volume Cited

35 Author(s), title, vol. 5, subtitle of volume (if any),

Book Editions

35 2nd ed.; 3rd ed.

Book: Reprinted

35 Jacques Barzun, Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers, rev. ed. (1985; repr., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 152–53.

Book: Translated

35 D. Draaisma, Metaphors of Memory: A History of Ideas about the Mind, trans. Paul Vincent (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Book: Edited and Revised

35 Propertius, Elegies, ed. and trans. G.P. Goold, Loeb Classical Library 18 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 45.

Book Chapter or Article (with Editor)

35 Aldo Leopold, “Some Animals in the Wild,” in The River of the Mother of God, ed. Susan L. Flader (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992).

Article in Journal

35 Kent M. Haworth, “Local Archives: Responsibilities and Challenges for Archivists,” Archivaria 3 (Winter 1976–77): 28–39.

35 Peter Horsman, Eric Ketelaar, and Theo Thomassen, “New Respect for the Old Order: The Context of the Dutch Manual,” American Archivist 66, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 240–70.

Article in Online Journal

35 Richard J. Cox, “The Great Newspaper Caper: Backlash in the Digital Age,” First Monday 5, no. 12 (December 2000), accessed May 7, 2004,

Websites, Blogs, and Social Media (Full Citation)

Web Page (dated)

36 Association of Canadian Archivists, “Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct,” October 18, 2017,

Web Page (undated)

36 “Patent Expert Issues: Nanotechnology,” WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization, accessed July 29, 2020,

Blog Post

36 Michael Geist, “What Open Government Hides,” Michael Geist (blog), December 1, 2014,

Social Media Content

36 Nikki Haley (@Nikki Haley), “UNESCO is among the most corrupt and politically biased UN agencies,” Twitter, January 1, 2019, 5:19 p.m.,

Theses (Full Citation)

37 Catherine Aileen Bailey, “Archival Theory and Machine Readable Records: Some Problems and Issues” (master’s thesis, University of British Columbia, 1988), 17.

39 Terry Cook, “Apostle of Empire: Sir George Parkin and Imperial Federation” (PhD diss., Queen’s University, 1977).

Archival Documents (Full Citation)

There is no absolute standard on citing archival documents nor is there consensus among the international archival community. The preferred practice for Archivaria is that footnote and endnote references move from the general to the specific. In other words, start with the repository, then cite the fonds and series title, reference codes (file, volume, box, etc.), and finally the specific item, title, date. The most important point about handling citations is to be consistent within your manuscript.

52 Archives of Ontario, RG 47-27-1-71.1, Ontario historical studies series oral history program - political interviews, Interview with Robert F. Nixon, [sound recording], 1978.

55 Archives of Ontario, Macaulay Family Fonds, F 32 (hereafter cited as Macaulay Papers), MS 78, reel 1, James Morrison to Robert Macaulay, June 16, 1788.

56 Library and Archives Canada, Solicitor General, RG 73, vol. 145, file 1-21-20, “name of article/memo/etc.,” page number.

Subsequent Citations

After the first full mention of a source in the footnotes, use a “shortened citation” as follows:

  • On the second and subsequent references, use only the author’s surname followed by a comma and then the shortened article or book title (usually the main title up until the colon, omitting the subtitle unless it is needed to distinguish between two articles with the same main title). Follow this with a comma and the page or page range, if applicable.

  • Archivaria does not use ibid. to refer to the previous citation. When referring to the last item cited, give the author name only, followed by the page number (even if this is the same page cited in the previous note).

  • If there are two authors with the same surname, use the author’s full name to distinguish between the two.

First Time Cited:

56 Catherine A. Bailey, “Past Imperfect? Reflections on the Evolution of Canadian Federal Government Records Appraisal,” Archivaria 75 (Spring 2013): 5–47.

Subsequent Citations in Same Article:

67 Bailey, “Past Imperfect?,” 36.


if the whole article is being referenced:

76 Bailey, “Past Imperfect?”

First Time Cited:

4 Kent M. Haworth, “The Voyage of RAD: From the Old World to the New,” Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993): 5–12.

9 Kent M. Haworth, “Local Archives: Responsibilities and Challenges for Archivists,” Archivaria 3 (Winter 1976/7): 28–39.

Subsequent Citations in Same Article:

31 Haworth, “The Voyage of RAD,” 7–8.

37 Haworth, “Local Archives”

38 Haworth, 28.

39 Haworth, 28.

40 Haworth, “The Voyage of RAD,” 10.

First Time Cited:

32 Macaulay Papers, MS 78, reel 5, Commission appointing J.K. Macaulay to be Ensign, March 18, 1863.

Subsequent Citations in Same Article:

37 Macaulay Papers.


Captions appear below figures and photographs. The words Figure or Table and the number and the colon following are in boldface. The remainder of the caption is in sentence case and roman. If a figure needs to be credited, use Source:

Figure 1: Screen shot of the searchable database. Source: …


Tables/charts appear below captions; any notes (nota) appear below table/chart.

Table 1: Title of table.

In text, refer to figures and tables using lower case according to CMOS, e.g., “See figure 3 on page 12.”

Epigraphs/Opening Quotations and Abstracts

  • Include a brief source note (i.e., author name and title of the work), preceded by an en-dash, on the line following an epigraph.

  • If an epigraph requires a footnote (i.e., if the source is not well known), the reference number should follow this source note.

  • Treat sources for all epigraphs in the same work consistently.

More on Epigraphs

  • Place any opening quotation after the abstracts and before the introduction.

  • Justify the text.

  • Do not use quotation marks.